Linux 网站文件和数据库全量备份 一键脚本(支持FTP,Google Drive)

服务器技术 9 个月前 回复

, , , , ,

做网站最重要的是什么?数据!数据,是网站之本,备份,是每一个站长都应该重视的事情。但同时,备份也是一件繁琐和重复的事情。所以,这些事情,肯定能做到自动化的。
下面来介绍一下这个一键备份脚本 backup.sh。

总结一下 backup.sh 特点:

1、支持 MySQL/MariaDB/Percona 的数据库全量备份或选择备份;
2、支持指定目录或文件的备份;
3、支持加密备份文件(需安装 openssl 命令,可选);
4、支持上传至 Google Drive(需先安装 gdrive 并配置,可选);
5、支持在删除指定天数本地旧的备份文件的同时,也删除 Google Drive 上的同名文件(可选)。

2016 年 8 月 21 日更新:
1、新增:指定 MySQL/MariaDB 的数据库名进行备份,可以同时指定多个;
2、新增:删除指定天数本地旧的备份文件。
2016 年 9 月 8 日更新:
1、新增:删除指定天数本地旧的备份文件的同时,可选删除 Google Drive 上的同名文件。
2016 年 11 月 29 日更新:
1、新增:上传备份文件到 FTP 选项;
2、新增:删除指定天数本地旧的备份文件的同时,可选删除 Google Drive 及 FTP 上的同名文件。

教程模式开启:
1、下载该脚本并赋予执行权限

wget --no-check-certificate https://github.com/teddysun/across/raw/master/backup.sh
chmod +x backup.sh

或者编辑以下代码,保存为XXX.sh文件

#!/usr/bin/env bash
# Copyright (C) 2013 - 2022 Teddysun <i@teddysun.com>
# 
# This file is part of the LAMP script.
#
# LAMP is a powerful bash script for the installation of 
# Apache + PHP + MySQL/MariaDB and so on.
# You can install Apache + PHP + MySQL/MariaDB in an very easy way.
# Just need to input numbers to choose what you want to install before installation.
# And all things will be done in a few minutes.
#
# Description:      Auto backup shell script
# Description URL:  https://teddysun.com/469.html
#
# Website:  https://lamp.sh
# Github:   https://github.com/teddysun/lamp
#
# You must to modify the config before run it!!!
# Backup MySQL/MariaDB datebases, files and directories
# Backup file is encrypted with AES256-cbc with SHA1 message-digest (option)
# Auto transfer backup file to Google Drive (need install rclone command) (option)
# Auto transfer backup file to FTP server (option)
# Auto delete Google Drive's or FTP server's remote file (option)

[[ $EUID -ne 0 ]] && echo "Error: This script must be run as root!" && exit 1

########## START OF CONFIG ##########

# Encrypt flag (true: encrypt, false: not encrypt)
ENCRYPTFLG=true

# WARNING: KEEP THE PASSWORD SAFE!!!
# The password used to encrypt the backup
# To decrypt backups made by this script, run the following command:
# openssl enc -aes256 -in [encrypted backup] -out decrypted_backup.tgz -pass pass:[backup password] -d -md sha1
BACKUPPASS="mypassword"

# Directory to store backups
LOCALDIR="/opt/backups/"

# Temporary directory used during backup creation
TEMPDIR="/opt/backups/temp/"

# File to log the outcome of backups
LOGFILE="/opt/backups/backup.log"

# OPTIONAL:
# If you want to backup the MySQL database, enter the MySQL root password below, otherwise leave it blank
MYSQL_ROOT_PASSWORD=""

# Below is a list of MySQL database name that will be backed up
# If you want backup ALL databases, leave it blank.
MYSQL_DATABASE_NAME[0]=""

# Below is a list of files and directories that will be backed up in the tar backup
# For example:
# File: /data/www/default/test.tgz
# Directory: /data/www/default/test
BACKUP[0]=""

# Number of days to store daily local backups (default 7 days)
LOCALAGEDAILIES="7"

# Delete remote file from Googole Drive or FTP server flag (true: delete, false: not delete)
DELETE_REMOTE_FILE_FLG=false

# Rclone remote name
RCLONE_NAME=""

# Rclone remote folder name (default "")
RCLONE_FOLDER=""

# Upload local file to FTP server flag (true: upload, false: not upload)
FTP_FLG=false

# Upload local file to Google Drive flag (true: upload, false: not upload)
RCLONE_FLG=false

# FTP server
# OPTIONAL: If you want to upload to FTP server, enter the Hostname or IP address below
FTP_HOST=""

# FTP username
# OPTIONAL: If you want to upload to FTP server, enter the FTP username below
FTP_USER=""

# FTP password
# OPTIONAL: If you want to upload to FTP server, enter the username's password below
FTP_PASS=""

# FTP server remote folder
# OPTIONAL: If you want to upload to FTP server, enter the FTP remote folder below
# For example: public_html
FTP_DIR=""

########## END OF CONFIG ##########

# Date & Time
DAY=$(date +%d)
MONTH=$(date +%m)
YEAR=$(date +%C%y)
BACKUPDATE=$(date +%Y%m%d%H%M%S)
# Backup file name
TARFILE="${LOCALDIR}""$(hostname)"_"${BACKUPDATE}".tgz
# Encrypted backup file name
ENC_TARFILE="${TARFILE}.enc"
# Backup MySQL dump file name
SQLFILE="${TEMPDIR}mysql_${BACKUPDATE}.sql"

log() {
    echo "$(date "+%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S")" "$1"
    echo -e "$(date "+%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S")" "$1" >> ${LOGFILE}
}

# Check for list of mandatory binaries
check_commands() {
    # This section checks for all of the binaries used in the backup
    # Do not check mysql command if you do not want to backup the MySQL database
    if [ -z "${MYSQL_ROOT_PASSWORD}" ]; then
        BINARIES=( cat cd du date dirname echo openssl pwd rm tar )
    else
        BINARIES=( cat cd du date dirname echo openssl mysql mysqldump pwd rm tar )
    fi

    # Iterate over the list of binaries, and if one isn't found, abort
    for BINARY in "${BINARIES[@]}"; do
        if [ ! "$(command -v "$BINARY")" ]; then
            log "$BINARY is not installed. Install it and try again"
            exit 1
        fi
    done

    # check rclone command
    RCLONE_COMMAND=false
    if [ "$(command -v "rclone")" ]; then
        RCLONE_COMMAND=true
    fi

    # check ftp command
    if ${FTP_FLG}; then
        if [ ! "$(command -v "ftp")" ]; then
            log "ftp is not installed. Install it and try again"
            exit 1
        fi
    fi
}

calculate_size() {
    local file_name=$1
    local file_size=$(du -h $file_name 2>/dev/null | awk '{print $1}')
    if [ "x${file_size}" = "x" ]; then
        echo "unknown"
    else
        echo "${file_size}"
    fi
}

# Backup MySQL databases
mysql_backup() {
    if [ -z "${MYSQL_ROOT_PASSWORD}" ]; then
        log "MySQL root password not set, MySQL backup skipped"
    else
        log "MySQL dump start"
        mysql -u root -p"${MYSQL_ROOT_PASSWORD}" 2>/dev/null <<EOF
exit
EOF
        if [ $? -ne 0 ]; then
            log "MySQL root password is incorrect. Please check it and try again"
            exit 1
        fi
        if [[ "${MYSQL_DATABASE_NAME[@]}" == "" ]]; then
            mysqldump -u root -p"${MYSQL_ROOT_PASSWORD}" --all-databases > "${SQLFILE}" 2>/dev/null
            if [ $? -ne 0 ]; then
                log "MySQL all databases backup failed"
                exit 1
            fi
            log "MySQL all databases dump file name: ${SQLFILE}"
            #Add MySQL backup dump file to BACKUP list
            BACKUP=(${BACKUP[@]} ${SQLFILE})
        else
            for db in ${MYSQL_DATABASE_NAME[@]}; do
                unset DBFILE
                DBFILE="${TEMPDIR}${db}_${BACKUPDATE}.sql"
                mysqldump -u root -p"${MYSQL_ROOT_PASSWORD}" ${db} > "${DBFILE}" 2>/dev/null
                if [ $? -ne 0 ]; then
                    log "MySQL database name [${db}] backup failed, please check database name is correct and try again"
                    exit 1
                fi
                log "MySQL database name [${db}] dump file name: ${DBFILE}"
                #Add MySQL backup dump file to BACKUP list
                BACKUP=(${BACKUP[@]} ${DBFILE})
            done
        fi
        log "MySQL dump completed"
    fi
}

start_backup() {
    [ "${#BACKUP[@]}" -eq 0 ] && echo "Error: You must to modify the [$(basename $0)] config before run it!" && exit 1

    log "Tar backup file start"
    tar -zcPf ${TARFILE} ${BACKUP[@]}
    if [ $? -gt 1 ]; then
        log "Tar backup file failed"
        exit 1
    fi
    log "Tar backup file completed"

    # Encrypt tar file
    if ${ENCRYPTFLG}; then
        log "Encrypt backup file start"
        openssl enc -aes256 -in "${TARFILE}" -out "${ENC_TARFILE}" -pass pass:"${BACKUPPASS}" -md sha1
        log "Encrypt backup file completed"

        # Delete unencrypted tar
        log "Delete unencrypted tar file: ${TARFILE}"
        rm -f ${TARFILE}
    fi

    # Delete MySQL temporary dump file
    for sql in $(ls ${TEMPDIR}*.sql 2> /dev/null); do
        log "Delete MySQL temporary dump file: ${sql}"
        rm -f ${sql}
    done

    if ${ENCRYPTFLG}; then
        OUT_FILE="${ENC_TARFILE}"
    else
        OUT_FILE="${TARFILE}"
    fi
    log "File name: ${OUT_FILE}, File size: $(calculate_size ${OUT_FILE})"
}

# Transfer backup file to Google Drive
# If you want to install rclone command, please visit website:
# https://rclone.org/downloads/
rclone_upload() {
    if ${RCLONE_FLG} && ${RCLONE_COMMAND}; then
        [ -z "${RCLONE_NAME}" ] && log "Error: RCLONE_NAME can not be empty!" && return 1
        if [ -n "${RCLONE_FOLDER}" ]; then
            rclone ls ${RCLONE_NAME}:${RCLONE_FOLDER} 2>&1 > /dev/null
            if [ $? -ne 0 ]; then
                log "Create the path ${RCLONE_NAME}:${RCLONE_FOLDER}"
                rclone mkdir ${RCLONE_NAME}:${RCLONE_FOLDER}
            fi
        fi
        log "Tranferring backup file: ${OUT_FILE} to Google Drive"
        rclone copy ${OUT_FILE} ${RCLONE_NAME}:${RCLONE_FOLDER} >> ${LOGFILE}
        if [ $? -ne 0 ]; then
            log "Error: Tranferring backup file: ${OUT_FILE} to Google Drive failed"
            return 1
        fi
        log "Tranferring backup file: ${OUT_FILE} to Google Drive completed"
    fi
}

# Tranferring backup file to FTP server
ftp_upload() {
    if ${FTP_FLG}; then
        [ -z "${FTP_HOST}" ] && log "Error: FTP_HOST can not be empty!" && return 1
        [ -z "${FTP_USER}" ] && log "Error: FTP_USER can not be empty!" && return 1
        [ -z "${FTP_PASS}" ] && log "Error: FTP_PASS can not be empty!" && return 1
        [ -z "${FTP_DIR}" ] && log "Error: FTP_DIR can not be empty!" && return 1
        local FTP_OUT_FILE=$(basename ${OUT_FILE})
        log "Tranferring backup file: ${FTP_OUT_FILE} to FTP server"
        ftp -in ${FTP_HOST} 2>&1 >> ${LOGFILE} <<EOF
user $FTP_USER $FTP_PASS
binary
lcd $LOCALDIR
cd $FTP_DIR
put $FTP_OUT_FILE
quit
EOF
        if [ $? -ne 0 ]; then
            log "Error: Tranferring backup file: ${FTP_OUT_FILE} to FTP server failed"
            return 1
        fi
        log "Tranferring backup file: ${FTP_OUT_FILE} to FTP server completed"
    fi
}

# Get file date
get_file_date() {
    #Approximate a 30-day month and 365-day year
    DAYS=$(( $((10#${YEAR}*365)) + $((10#${MONTH}*30)) + $((10#${DAY})) ))
    unset FILEYEAR FILEMONTH FILEDAY FILEDAYS FILEAGE
    FILEYEAR=$(echo "$1" | cut -d_ -f2 | cut -c 1-4)
    FILEMONTH=$(echo "$1" | cut -d_ -f2 | cut -c 5-6)
    FILEDAY=$(echo "$1" | cut -d_ -f2 | cut -c 7-8)
    if [[ "${FILEYEAR}" && "${FILEMONTH}" && "${FILEDAY}" ]]; then
        #Approximate a 30-day month and 365-day year
        FILEDAYS=$(( $((10#${FILEYEAR}*365)) + $((10#${FILEMONTH}*30)) + $((10#${FILEDAY})) ))
        FILEAGE=$(( 10#${DAYS} - 10#${FILEDAYS} ))
        return 0
    fi
    return 1
}

# Delete Google Drive's old backup file
delete_gdrive_file() {
    local FILENAME=$1
    if ${DELETE_REMOTE_FILE_FLG} && ${RCLONE_COMMAND}; then
        rclone ls ${RCLONE_NAME}:${RCLONE_FOLDER}/${FILENAME} 2>&1 > /dev/null
        if [ $? -eq 0 ]; then
            rclone delete ${RCLONE_NAME}:${RCLONE_FOLDER}/${FILENAME} >> ${LOGFILE}
            if [ $? -eq 0 ]; then
                log "Google Drive's old backup file: ${FILENAME} has been deleted"
            else
                log "Failed to delete Google Drive's old backup file: ${FILENAME}"
            fi
        else
            log "Google Drive's old backup file: ${FILENAME} is not exist"
        fi
    fi
}

# Delete FTP server's old backup file
delete_ftp_file() {
    local FILENAME=$1
    if ${DELETE_REMOTE_FILE_FLG} && ${FTP_FLG}; then
        ftp -in ${FTP_HOST} 2>&1 >> ${LOGFILE} <<EOF
user $FTP_USER $FTP_PASS
cd $FTP_DIR
del $FILENAME
quit
EOF
        if [ $? -eq 0 ]; then
            log "FTP server's old backup file: ${FILENAME} has been deleted"
        else
            log "Failed to delete FTP server's old backup file: ${FILENAME}"
        fi
    fi
}

# Clean up old file
clean_up_files() {
    cd ${LOCALDIR} || exit
    if ${ENCRYPTFLG}; then
        LS=($(ls *.enc 2> /dev/null))
    else
        LS=($(ls *.tgz 2> /dev/null))
    fi
    for f in ${LS[@]}; do
        get_file_date ${f}
        if [ $? -eq 0 ]; then
            if [[ ${FILEAGE} -gt ${LOCALAGEDAILIES} ]]; then
                rm -f ${f}
                log "Old backup file name: ${f} has been deleted"
                delete_gdrive_file ${f}
                delete_ftp_file ${f}
            fi
        fi
    done
}

# Main progress
STARTTIME=$(date +%s)

# Check if the backup folders exist and are writeable
[ ! -d "${LOCALDIR}" ] && mkdir -p ${LOCALDIR}
[ ! -d "${TEMPDIR}" ] && mkdir -p ${TEMPDIR}

log "Backup progress start"
check_commands
mysql_backup
start_backup
log "Backup progress complete"

log "Upload progress start"
rclone_upload
ftp_upload
log "Upload progress complete"

log "Cleaning up"
clean_up_files
ENDTIME=$(date +%s)
DURATION=$((ENDTIME - STARTTIME))
log "All done"
log "Backup and transfer completed in ${DURATION} seconds"

2、修改并配置脚本

请使用 vim 或 nano 等工具来修改。

关于变量名的一些说明:

ENCRYPTFLG (加密FLG,true 为加密,false 为不加密,默认是加密)
BACKUPPASS (加密密码,重要,务必要修改)
LOCALDIR (备份目录,可自己指定)
TEMPDIR (备份目录的临时目录,可自己指定)
LOGFILE (脚本运行产生的日志文件路径)
MYSQL_ROOT_PASSWORD (MySQL/MariaDB/Percona 的 root 用户密码)
MYSQL_DATABASE_NAME (指定 MySQL/MariaDB/Percona 的数据库名,留空则是备份所有数据库)
※ MYSQL_DATABASE_NAME 是一个数组变量,可以指定多个。举例如下:

MYSQL_DATABASE_NAME[0]="phpmyadmin"
MYSQL_DATABASE_NAME[1]="test"

BACKUP (需要备份的指定目录或文件列表,留空就是不备份目录或文件)
※ BACKUP 是一个数组变量,可以指定多个。举例如下:

BACKUP[0]="/data/www/default/test.tgz"
BACKUP[1]="/data/www/default/test/"
BACKUP[2]="/data/www/default/test2/"

LOCALAGEDAILIES (指定多少天之后删除本地旧的备份文件,默认为 7 天)
DELETE_REMOTE_FILE_FLG (删除 Google Drive 或 FTP 上的备份文件 FLG,true 为删除,false 为不删除)

如果要用FTP 先yum -y install ftp

FTP_FLG (上传文件至 FTP 的 FLG,true 为上传,false 为不上传)
FTP_HOST (连接的 FTP 域名或 IP 地址)
FTP_USER (连接的 FTP 的用户名)
FTP_PASS (连接的 FTP 的用户的密码)
FTP_DIR (连接的 FTP 的远程目录,比如: public_html)

一些注意事项的说明:

1)脚本需要用 root 用户来执行;
2)脚本需要用到 openssl 来加密,请事先安装好;
3)脚本默认备份所有的数据库(全量备份);
4)备份文件的解密命令如下:

openssl enc -aes256 -in [ENCRYPTED BACKUP] -out decrypted_backup.tgz -pass pass:[BACKUPPASS] -d -md sha1

5)备份文件解密后,解压命令如下:

tar -zxPf [DECRYPTION BACKUP FILE]

解释一下参数 -P:
tar 压缩文件默认都是相对路径的。加个 -P 是为了 tar 能以绝对路径压缩文件。因此,解压的时候也要带个 -P 参数。
3、配置 gdrive 命令

gdrive 是一个命令行工具,用于 Google Drive 的上传下载等操作。官网网站:
https://github.com/prasmussen/gdrive

当然,你可以用以下的命令来安装 gdrive。

x86_64(64位):

wget -O /usr/bin/gdrive http://dl.lamp.sh/files/gdrive-linux-x64
chmod +x /usr/bin/gdrive

i386(32位)

wget -O /usr/bin/gdrive http://dl.lamp.sh/files/gdrive-linux-386
chmod +x /usr/bin/gdrive

然后,运行以下命令开始获取授权:

gdrive about

根据提示用浏览器打开 gdrive 给出的 URL,点击接受(Accept),然后将浏览器上显示出来的字符串粘贴回命令行里,完成授权。
4、运行脚本开始备份

./backup.sh

脚本默认会显示备份进度,并在最后统计出所需时间。
如果你想将脚本加入到 cron 自动运行的话,就不需要前台显示备份进度,只写日志就可以了。
这个时候你需要稍微改一下脚本中的 log 函数。

log() {
    echo "$(date "+%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S")" "$1"
    echo -e "$(date "+%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S")" "$1" >> ${LOGFILE}
}

改为:

log() {
    echo -e "$(date "+%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S")" "$1" >> ${LOGFILE}
}

关于如何使用 cron 自动备份,这里就不再赘述了 以 CentOS 6 来举例说明。

修改文件 /etc/crontab,内容如下:

SHELL=/bin/bash
PATH=/bin:/sbin:/usr/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/local/bin:/usr/local/sbin:~/bin
MAILTO=root
HOME=/root
# For details see man 4 crontabs

# Example of job definition:
# .---------------- minute (0 - 59)
# |  .------------- hour (0 - 23)
# |  |  .---------- day of month (1 - 31)
# |  |  |  .------- month (1 - 12) OR jan,feb,mar,apr ...
# |  |  |  |  .---- day of week (0 - 6) (Sunday=0 or 7) OR sun,mon,tue,wed,thu,fri,sat
# |  |  |  |  |
# *  *  *  *  * user-name command to be executed
30  1  *  *  * root bash /root/backup.sh

以上表示,每天凌晨 1 点 30 分,root 用户执行一次 backup.sh 脚本。
注意:
一定要修改其中的 PATH 和 HOME 变量的值。
尤其是 HOME 变量,gdrive 命令能否正确执行,是要依赖于其配置文件的。默认用 root 配置的话,其配置文件夹应该是 /root/.gdrive/ ,所以要更改 HOME 的值。

原文来自于https://www.cnblogs.com/yunweis/p/8177734.html

支付宝打赏微信打赏

如果此文对你有帮助,欢迎打赏作者。

发表评论

欢迎回来 (打开)

(必填)